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Thursday, September 29, 2011

Computer 101: What is a Computer Motherboard Really Part 2?

Let’s go back so far several items have been mentioned as being connected to the motherboard, they are the following hard disk drive which connect via the older IDE or the newer SATA interface cable, then the memory or RAM which is connected via the memory slot and then there’s the graphics card which is generally built-in or is connected via the graphics card slot which could be the now phase-out AGP slot or the newer PCIE slot. All the three system mentioned previously communicates with each other via the motherboard and also communicates with the central processing unit or CPU. The motherboard also serves as the manager of all different systems connected on it. The motherboard also facilitates the proper flow of data from one point to another. One important function of the motherboard is to regulate the flow of current from the power supply unit to all the different components that needs them. The power supply unit is also connected via the motherboard using several color coded wire where in each wire color correspond to a specific value of power that flows thru it.

Also other additional system that interacts with the motherboard are the sound card which processes information to be converted to sound and is play out via a speaker system. Another expansion system is the NIC controller which comes in two configurations. The first type is built-in NIC controller and the second is add-in card. The NIC stand for network interface card or controller, this system allows the computer to be connected to a network, or to the internet. The expansion NIC is also connected via the PCIE slot located next to the graphics card. Also all motherboard have external connector for external devices such the printer, mp3 player, Smartphone, external drive, flash drive, microphone, speaker and many other devices. As we can see the motherboard is the host for all the devices that can connected to the computer. Other devices can also use the external ports of a motherboard to charge their battery. This feature was not available before, but as technology evolves and develops the computer allows other devices such as smart phone and mp3 player to charge their battery via the usb ports.

Motherboard Chips

One important feature of the computer motherboard is that there are no moving parts. All different systems are electronic there is no wear unlike parts that has a clear movable parts where the continuous movement through constant usage at a long period of time will eventually result in that parts succumbing to wear and tear. But since all components are small, to be exact micro in size or even smaller that power they consume less power compare to conventional devices which would eat a considerable amount of power. While wear and tear is not common to electronic component, power surges are common. These small electronic component when feed with the right amount of power will function correctly but if the power being feed increases dramatically at a given time then that electronic component is very susceptible power burn-out which will cause the main system to malfunction and eventually failure. Just like what I posted a couple of days ago regarding motherboard failure cause by blown-out capacitor, the same is true with IC based components.


Integrated circuit is the main components of all type of motherboard and much other electronic system. All integrated circuit consume certain amount of very low power from 4 volts DC to 15 volts DC. So if there is a power surge on the motherboard system most IC would not be able to withstand such a sudden increase in power and will always burn-out once the power flowing through is suddenly increased instantly. The main benefit of very small circuits is that a lot of system can be built and compacted which in turns would produce smaller system and greater efficiency in operation. Also the cost of building such system is very chip as well since free made smaller system is already working and linking them together is the only problem. A problem that be easily solve by proper design and configuration. So whenever we are giving importance to other components of the computer the motherboard should also be at the top or near the top of your list because it plays a very important function in your computer over-all performance.

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Tuesday, September 27, 2011

Computer 101: What is a Computer Motherboard Really?

A lot of topic has been discussed about this one major component of the personal computer. Then why create one and add more to the confusion? There are so many articles out here that adding this one might only make things more complicated. We based on my fifteen years of experience building and repairing personal computer, the computer motherboard is more than just connection, and circuit. To me it is the central focal point of all things in a personal computer. In this article we will go in depth regarding how a motherboard works in real life environment and how it is affected by inside and outside forces not just parts and function or this works like this and it is connected to this and that. There are already a lot of those kind of stuff in the internet just some research and it will pop-up.

For anatomy that computer motherboard can be compared to the human skeletal system. But why, well for one the bones in our body is the one responsible for keeping up all that is you and me. Yup there is the muscle but without the bones we will all look like a big lump of a mass bulging on the ground. The motherboard is more that just connection it is a means of communication between devices and different system integrated or added in the motherboard. To generalize all electronic devices has a main board inside each and everyone of theme. From the newest smart phone, tablet, laptop, Television and more each and every one of these items has a main board inside them. Those lines that we saw in every motherboard are more than just line of connection there are the line of communication.

PCI Slot

Dual CPU Slot

Let’s take a closer look what are the different system that connect and communicate with each other and with the motherboard. On top of the list is the mighty brain of the computer, the central processing unit or CPU also known as processor or micro processor. These device is the one that process all the information being used by all the separate system inside the computer and is connected via the motherboard. The processor communicates via the motherboard to all the other system in the computer while it also processes all the information for all the different systems. Another such different systems in your computer are the hard disk drive unit. It is a complete system that is connected also to the motherboard via the cable like the older IDE cable and the newer SATA cable. Lets take a look at these two different system, while the processor is the brain the hard disk drive is the main permanent storage of all types of information used in the computer. The processor’s job is to process information but what happen after processing all those information. Where are all that process information goes too? Or what happen to information before and after being process by the processor?

IDE Cable

SATA and Power Cable

Well before being process all information stays in the hard disk drive and after being process it comes back to the hard disk drive. Yup that why the hard disk drives is the main permanent storage of all types of information being used by the computer. Ever notice I keep adding the word permanent to all storage word that because there are two types of data storage in computer, one is the permanent type while the other is the temporary type. But why do we need a temporary type of data storage since all our information and data is important? Well yup that is correct all the information and data that we put inside the computer is important that why we used computer to almost anything today. It’ likes this temporary information and data is what we call the ones being use at the moment. Let’s say the user is going to watch a movie stored in the computer, the file of that movie is stored permanently in the hard drive. In order for that movie to brought to the screen of the computer it needs to be process by the process and then sent via the motherboard to the memory or RAM to be stored temporarily and than sent via the graphics card to be process or converted to analog signal for displaying in CRT type screen or process then displayed to an LCD or LED type screen.


Ops we mentioned three things there, the Memory, graphics card and screen. If the hard disk drive is the permanent storage facility inside the computer then the memory or RAM is the temporary holding area for the information and data while that data is being use by the computer or while we watch the movie it is temporary stored in the memory. This is one reason why we need a larger amount of memory so that while playing a movie it would continue to play properly and we enjoy watching it. Compare to a movie which barely plays on because the computer does not have enough memory capacity to store and play it correctly. So why happen to the data stored in the memory? Well all the information and data store in the memory is erase or deleted after we turn-off the computer. Yup that what happen if we turn off the computer then the data stored in the memory is erase. But the data in the hard drive is not even if we turn the computer of that information or data is still stored there. That why there is permanent and temporary storage of data. To be continued………

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Saturday, September 24, 2011

15 ways to select text in a Word document

One of the most heavily document processor in every corner of the world is the Microsoft Word. It can be found in all aspect of activity like in work, school and at home. We use it to compose or created every type of document possible. But learning to use at first can be quite daunting but once we get the hang of it then its all breeze from one option to another. There are a lot of skills that we need to know and master; one of the first skills that we need to know and master in using the Word is how to select text. The most common method that we use in selecting text in Word is using the mouse to click and hold and then drag the pointer across the text that we need to select. Another common method of selecting text is we hold the shift button and then press the right arrow or left arrow from the keyboard to select a text or group of text. Also if we want to select all the text entirely we just need to double click on the word and it will highlight the word that we choose to double click on. So far these three ways are the most common way of selecting text in Word. But there are more ways of selecting text in word, in fact there are fifteen more ways and as implied by the author there more than 15 but the 15 ways on how to select text in Word are the easy method.

I want to share a very helpful and educational article which was emailed to me via subscriptions from ZDNET Asia. Since my purpose for bogging is help as stated in my blog I am sharing the link to read the complete content of the article. The title of the article is 15 ways to select text in a Word document by Susan Harkins. To have a preview of the content of the article the first paragraph is posted below:



Article Source: ZDNETAsia.com


Microsoft Word


15 ways to select text in a Word document


Besides entering text, selecting text is probably the most common task for most Word users. Almost every task begins by selecting something. Perhaps that's why there are so many ways to select text. The following list includes the methods I use. There are more - I left off a few because I've listed easier methods. If you have a favorite that I haven't listed, please share it with us.

To read the complete content of the article just click on the link provided since I am only allowed to post the first paragraph of the article by ZDNETAsia.com. I hope you find the article very interesting and educational.

Also many thanks to Ms. Eileen Yu the Senior Editor of ZDNETAsia.com for the guidance in sharing these wonderful articles by Ms. Susan Harkins

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Wednesday, September 21, 2011

Computer 101: Capacitor Failure in some Motherboards.

The computer motherboard is the central connection of every piece of hardware that a computer can have. All connectors, processor, memory, storage and display are connected via this one piece of hardware.  That makes the computer motherboard one of the most important pieces of hardware. Without the motherboard the central processing unit would not be able to accept and process information. The document that we create with our computer cannot be sent to the printer to make hard copy of it without the data going thru the motherboard. Now that I have cited how important the motherboard is, we need to know what are the signs that it is about to go south on us. But if your motherboard is new then these article does not concern you but is like to know the sign then continue reading on.

There is one component in the motherboard that would displayed the sign that e are looking for. Oh by the way before we go on I will clarify that there is only one sign that you’re going to read in these article and where only motherboard component to look for to see these sign. The component that we need to look out for is the capacitor every motherboard has one. There are several capacitors in each motherboard. The sign that we need to look for from these capacitor is if each one of them is already started to grow their top side. If you observe each new motherboard and look at the capacitors that are installed, we will notice that each top side of the capacitor is flat. After a few year of usage each capacitor has tendencies to the wear and tear and this will result in a gradual destruction of its inner working. If each one of these capacitor started to bulge each top side, once all capacitor has each top side bulging already then the motherboard has already gone south.

The following information was taken from Wikipedia regarding capacitor failure or capacitor plague. I have made a copy of some parts of the information from Wikipedia and put a hyperlink from the page where it was taken from please read on.

This Part of the article came from the Wikipedia. Capacitor Plague

Capacitor Plague

“The capacitor plague (also known as bad capacitors) is an ongoing problem with premature failure of large numbers of electrolytic capacitors of certain brands. Capacitors are used in various electronics equipment, particularly motherboards, video cards, compact fluorescent lamp ballasts, LCD monitors, and power supplies of personal computers. The first flawed capacitors were seen in 1999, but most of the affected capacitors were made in the early to mid 2000s. News of the failures (usually after a few years of use) forced most manufacturers to repair the defects and stop using the capacitors, but some bad capacitors were still being sold or used in equipment as of early 2007, and faults are still being reported as of 2011.


An incorrect electrolyte formula within a faulty capacitor causes the production of hydrogen gas (confirmed by mass spectrometry[1]), leading to bulging or deformation of the capacitor's case, and eventual venting of the electrolyte. The failed capacitors analyzed by two University of Maryland researchers (by ion chromatography and mass spectrometry) contained no traces of the depolarizing agent normally found in such capacitors in order to retain the hydrogen in solution. The root cause of failure for bulging Taiwanese capacitors has been hypothesized to be dissolution of the aluminium into the electrolyte due to poor phosphate-electrolyte balance, rather than the normal evaporation of the electrolyte that all such capacitors undergo. This hypothesis has been confirmed by analyzing the electrolyte using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), which confirmed the presence of dissolved aluminium in the Taiwanese capacitors' electrolyte, but not in Japanese ones, and by electrical testing, which confirmed a thinning of the dielectric, because the capacitance increased before failure, rather than the normal decrease through electrolyte evaporation. The industry standard test failed to capture this behaviour, likely because the high voltage used in the test significantly retards the dissolution, whereas it occurs faster at the production environment voltages. 

A serious quality control problem is that the issue only manifests after use over a period of time; poor quality electrolytic capacitors have the same measurable parameters as good ones when new. Only extensive accelerated life testing with high ripple currents and high operating temperatures can identify inferior components. After some normal usage, the bad capacitors predictably fail far sooner than normal end-of-life; most electronic components do not systematically fail in this way. “

To read the complete article from Wikipedia just click the link provided. Capacitor Plague

Again the information above came from Wikipedia I just want to share it because in my work I have already experience these capacitor failure several times already in the same motherboard brand that we purchase back in 2007. I will not say what the name of the motherboard or the manufacturer. So far we purchase several computer with the same motherboard back in 2007 and already four units have that has the same motherboard brand has already fail with all four having the same cause a blown capacitor or the capacitor top part has bulge. To get the units back in action i replace the motherboard with a new one that matches the processor and memory so that both item would not need to be change only the motherboard needs replacing. I have shared this information so that it will help to others in determining the cause of a motherboard failure. So if ever the motherboard in your computer fail and that motherboard are purchase during that time period better have a look at those capacitors.

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Monday, September 19, 2011

The Computer Evolution: Desktop, Laptop, notebook, Tablet and Smart phone. Part 2

To continue back then we taught that having a cell phone and laptop was complete, we have the mobile device for communication and a mobile computer to do the task at hand wherever we are. At first we where happy of these two things in our daily activity, but then there is something that is bugging us about these two things that we have they are both bulky and heavy. Yup especially the old model laptop was heavy and big. It takes a lot to carry them around and we need a separate bag to put them in. This would add a lot to the weight that we are carrying. Yes they are mobile but heavy as well and if we frequently moved around as our job requires it then it would be too taxing to move and carry them all daylong. While the cell hone may be smaller compare to the laptop yet we barely can grip firmly on our hand. It may be okay for people with big hands, but for a person with small hands this bulky cell phone is sometimes to big to handle. The cell phone adds additional weight to our carrying weight and another device to put in the bag which is already full of other stuff that we carry around our daily routine.

Now then that was the scenario some year’s back big heavy laptop and bulky cell phone, there was no smart phone yet of some kind. Also if a person wants to take picture of friends, place and other stuff that might interest them then they bring along a handy digital camera with a memory card or the earlier film based camera. Now we have three devices to bring with laptop, cell phone and a digital camera. But wait another device that we need to bring along also is a portable music player. Yup because some or most of used would like to listen to our favorite music while on the go and since the Sony walkman was the first portable player in the earlier days. A new digital based music player is new and has replaced the walkman a main portable music player. Also since the walkman was limited to the number of song it can played the new digital based portable music player was more to offer like five hundred to a thousand song in a single player and we rightfully named it the as the MP3 player. Soon everyone has an MP3 player of all size, colored and shape. And since it was very small it could be keep in the pocket or our carrying bag or in the pocket of our pants or to some extent we could just carry it, another way is to put a strap on it and hang it over our neck as we move and listen to all out favorite music. We could listen to all the music that we wanted the only thing limiting that is the battery, but a few charge everyday would really go along way. Aha another device to add to our carrying list now we have four of then.

Now it a complete mobile work experienced, a laptop, cell phone, digital camera and a portable music player. But hey how about the size and weight of the laptop and cell phone and can I have a device that I can use to take picture, make a call or text my friends, office mate, family members and last but not the least my boss. On the case of the laptop, designer reduced it size to 14 inch and other small type. Some call it the notebook; others call it the net book, whatever name is given to it the laptop has spawn a small version of it which is lighter compare to a full-size laptop. While some version has limited computing power compare to its bigger cousin, other has equal or more computing power added to it. Although on important hardware of the small version laptop is missing and that is the DVD player which is standard on all regular size laptop. Who cares anyway since we have the more portable USB flash drive which we used to store almost anything. Then technology find a way to combine the digital camera, cell phone, music player and the laptop all in one package and more. We now call it the smart phone, it has two cameras, and one camera can have eight to twelve mega pixels which is very comparable to most digital camera. A high definition video player and recorder as well and also just like the portable music player the smart phone can host hold equal number of music and better quality sound too. The smart phone can now also connect to the web via the WI-FI network whenever possible or use the regular internet subscription from the local service provider. Either way it can be used to browse the internet and read and check our email while on the move. Now we carry only thee devices which is very convenient, the small version of the laptop, the handy USB based flash drive and our very important smart phone. Which for all practical purpose can be place on a small bag as we move along in our daily task? Or so we think……….

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Friday, September 16, 2011

User's Manual One of the Most Neglected Item yet It is an Important Tool

As a computer technician we are required to know computer in and out. Most the time when some friend ask me to setup there newly purchase computer or installed a newly purchase printer among other things. In my personal activity when a member of my family purchase something new i am the one that always get to setup it up, especially is it is an electronic device and based from all of these i always used the item called the User's Manual that came with the items because it pays to read and pay attention to it than starting on the wrong point.

But these has not always be the case for me, on the earlier part of my life and career i am also guilty of neglecting the most important item on a newly purchase box next of course to the item itself the USER'S Manual. It seems i am not the only who caught the bug of throwing away the user's manual  or never paid attention to it every time when open the box and setup's then item. I remember once when we purchase a separate VCR and speaker system. We go directly to the  VCR and speaker system set it up with heart founding for with joy we did not bother to read the manual's that is included in each item. We quickly hooked interconnect the two system and then connect to the television set to really complete an assembled home theater system. We plug in all the cord in the outlet and turn the power on all three. We put a movie cassette on VCR and press the play button and we waited .Remember back then all items need to be manually configured in order to work properly.

One important thing that needs to be setup is the system for the VCR and TV, in this part of the world all system must set to NTSC so that the TV will display color picture and the system of the VCR should be the same so that the output of the VCR can be seen clearly on the TV. In short both systems should be the same. When the movie appears on the screen of the TV well it look like it was created for silent watching and only two colored where display the black and the white. Right then and there we quickly realized we did something wrong we check all the connection from the TV to the VCR to the speaker. But they where correct and we were left scratching our heads wondering what is wrong with these things they do not work very well together.

When things go wrong in the initial part of the setup we tend to always think that there is something wrong with the new items that we purchase. It must have a factory defect of some kind as we ponder on what went wrong. We have exhausted all sorts of solutions on our part and when we cannot seems to make it work we always blames the item. But as experience taught us the solution to the most common problem that we encounter at the beginning is right there in front of our eyes. Like us when we finally use and consult the user's manual we found out that the simple solution to our problem with the VCR and TV hooked up is that the default system setting of the VCR is different to the system setting of the TV. We quickly adjusted the VCR system setting while reading the User's Manual on how to do it. After following all the instructions to the letter the result was very satisfactory the movie now appeared in full colored on the TV screen and with a clear sound to boot using the new speaker system. What a sight of relief, finally we where able to watch comfortable all our favorite movie back then while drinking a cold soda and setting comfortable in the couch.

Lesson learn for life for me, always use the User's manual that why the manufacturer always include it. Also do not throw it away it  may come in handy for future usage. Keep it in a safe place.

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Tuesday, September 13, 2011

The Computer Evolution: Desktop, Laptop, notebook, Tablet and Smart phone. Part 1

Ever since the computer came into our life in has evolve and still evolving or should I say spawning new type or bread of computer devices that adapt to our daily needs. Since the early 1970 and 80 where the full pledge desktop computer came into be it has become the center stage of all work, play and family activity of almost all person. I mean we love how the computers have helped each and every one of us in doing our daily task in work, school and at home. During the 90’s a new medium of communication was developed and since then the computer has become more than useful it has become a necessity for almost everybody. That form of communication was the internet as we know it today. Back then only a few person could it, the scientist, the military and some privilege institution. But as more and more institution and organization realize the value of the medium of connection and communication which can only be accessed via the personal computer as IBM would market it. Back then only the personal computer was the means on how to access the internet. Then people who are highly mobile want something more, they want to take the computer with them, but hey who want to carry a large four piece electronic equipment consisting of the screen, system unit, keyboard and the pointing device. Also how do we power them if ever we could take these devices?

Enter the Laptop small mobile computer although less powerful than its big desktop cousin. It has become the epitome of mobile computing. It can carry in one single piece. The screen is attached to the monitor plus more importantly it has a battery which can be recharged and once the battery is full of charged the laptop can be placed in a bag and strap on your shoulder. A person can work while one the move. In buses, airplane, ship even in restaurant. No more waiting to go to the office or at home before one could access those important document. The laptop become the new star of the computing world because this computer is mobile, one can work where ever they are located. Since then everybody has now own a laptop the mobile computer. In the office or school we could easily connect the internet, the network as there. How about the laptop how can we connect it to the internet also? Our needs also evolve since the internet was a major point in computer development. How can a mobile device like the laptop connect on the internet while on the move?

Enter another spawn of the internet the Wireless fidelity or WI-FI. In its early development it was deem to slow, but at he network technology develop faster so does the WI-FI technology develop also. A lot was invested to harness it for commercial purposes. As the wireless platform keeps developing, its importance become very obvious, at first only big company would setup a wireless access point and every employee or guest who has a laptop can be access to that even if you in the toilet you could be connected to the internet. Then many more realize the value of having a WI-FI access point, every one was setting up WI-FI access point. As the WI-FI developed a parallel development was also taking place in the other places like the phone. People wanted to talk with each other even if they are part apart. There is desire to communicate even in long distance. The telephone was a very useful device for this it was every where even on the side street. But our needs evolve again, we need something mobile, something we cam also carry just like the laptop.

Enter the cell phone, as wireless technology become feasible more telecom companies setup there own network of cell site and as the cell site increase so did the cell phone. Now every one can communicate even when they are on the move, the cell phone became a must have a need not just for corporate people but for everyone as long as there are signal to connect you to the network it was wonderful. Together with the laptop we now have a complete tool for work on the move, the laptop and the cell phone. It was complete or so we taught. To be continued…………

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Thursday, September 8, 2011

Computer 101: Automated USB Virus Scanner

Virus sources comes in many form, one major sources of virus that infect your computer, laptop or tablet is through the use of  Universal Serial Bus based drive or commonly called flash drive, flash disk among other terms used to describe a small rectangular stick of a memory house in plastic or metal that be used to plug in to almost any computer related devices. There are two reasons why the flash drive has become very useful in today activity. One it is very small and since it is small it is very easy to carry, it can be placed on almost any type of pocket in your jeans and bag or you could choose to it as a necklace around your neck as you move around. Another reason is that it can contain a lot of files like documents, mp3, video, and picture because of it's design capacity into it. From 1 gigabytes to 8 gigabytes or more, they sure come in handy. Also another that makes this device very attractive to use is it price. Depending on what currency your using almost all cost is very low compare to the benefits that it can bring.

Imagine carrying a thousand song in a very small device and that device can be plug-in to a player that automatically plays the song inside it without having to press any button or just pressing a single button for manual play. Now where do viruses come here? The very characteristic of the flash drive that can be plug in to all computers is the same usefulness that the virus uses to spread itself from computer to another computer. Let's say we have a clean flash drive and we plug it in on an infected computer without knowing that the computer is infected with a virus. It is then detected by the computer and is added to its system. Then once we transfer a file which is infected to the flash drive then we also create a scenario for that virus to infect our file once we activate the file that is infected. Another way of infecting a flash drive is as soon as the auto-run of the computer open the flash drive the virus immediately copies itself into the auto run files of the flash drive thereby spreading itself faster when we plug our infected flash drive into other computer or laptop. Remember not all anti-virus software can detect harmful scripts is a flash drive or from the internet. 

The best way to solve this problem is to install a USB port virus scanner. The function of this flash drive virus scanner it to scan automatically all flash being detected by the computer. If a computer has ten USB port it will be scan as soon as a flash drive has been detected on one of those USB port. USB virus scanner is very easy to install and requires small amount of memory to function. Once it is installed into the system of the computer it will always be active and on guard. We can verify this by expanding your task to see the icon of the installed USB port scanner. Remember folks this is an added layer protection for your main computer or laptop where we keep most of our original files and important documents. Together with the anti-virus installed in your computer the USB port scanner main task is to check every device that your attach to your computer especially flash drive. Having them installed is more safer than just relying on your trusted anti-virus software. We do not need to buy them there free USB port scanner available in the internet just search in the web to your favorite search engine and they appear instantaneously. Remember it better to safe than sorry.

How about you what do you think, care to share?

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Wednesday, September 7, 2011

Computer 101: How to Put an Add Widget item on Blogger before the Main Heading.

I know a lot of blog have discuss about this item about putting a new add widget on you blog hosted in Blogger. I just want to help out the newbie Blogger who does not have enough understanding about HTML, java script and programming. Reading thru does lines of codes can be very daunting to a newbie Blogger and even to some season Blogger. In this step all the skills that we need is how to read and compare lines. We will just need to modify a few items on the html coding of the blog. But before you proceed make that only the lines shown here are the one that you need to modify only. Do not touch any other part of the code.

First of all log in to your blog-spot account of your blog. Once you are log-in click the DESIGN then click on the EDIT HTML option then look for the EXPAND WIDGETS TEMPLATE then once located put a check mark on the small box besides it. Then to quicken the search ob the HTML code of your blog press Ctrl + F so that a search box will appear at the bottom of your browser. Then on the inside of your browser type the first few lines of this code:

                  <b:section class='header' id='header' maxwidgets='1' showaddelement='no'>

The search item will be quickly displayed, look for the same code as above. Okay once you located this line of code focus your attention on two key items. First on the maxwidget=1 we are going to change the current value of this instead of 1 please change it to 2 then for the next item the showaddelement='no' the current value is set to no please change it to yes. After modifying the value of this two item your code should look like this:

<b:section class='header' id='header' maxwidgets='2' showaddelement='yes'>

After modifying we need to save your template just click on the SAVE TEMPLATE button located just below to editor box. Wait for the confirmation that your modification has been save before returning to the PAGE ELEMENTS page of the dashboard. The page elements you will notice that a new add widget item has appeared. This new item can be very useful especially if you have a advertising code that you need to insert on your blog but could not do so because you have no html or java script programming skills.

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Monday, September 5, 2011

Computer 101: The DEL and the DELTREE DOS Command

Back in the early days of the DOS or Disk Operating System as the main operating system (OS) there is this two very useful command for erasing files and for erasing entire directory and its sub directories. They are the DEL for delete and the DELTREE for deleting the structure of the directories and all the files contains in it. They are both used to erase or delete items on your hard drive. The DEL command is very easy to use, we just type the command DEL and then press the space and then type the name of the file that we want to erase and press the enter key to execute the command. Presto we just deleted the name of the files indicated opposite the DEL command. But just like all DOS command if the name of the file does not match with the one we type there it will display an error like this " FILE NOT FOUND". To avoid this we have to make sure that every character of the file name that we need to delete must match the actual file name that we type after the DEL command.

DEL command option

The DEL command was used for deleting files or group of files in a single folder or directories. How about if one should delete entire directories and all it's sub directories, is the DEL command still applicable? Well yes it is still applicable but it would take to long do the process of going from one directories to another just to delete all the files they contain. We also have to remember that the DEL command was used only to delete files. Once we have clear out the files in a single directories then we cannot used the DEL command to delete the directory. To remove the specific directory then we need to used the RD DOS command to remove the specific directory. Yes RD stand for REMOVE DIRECTORY, so if a single directory have at-least twenty sub-directory then it would really take some time before we can delete the entire directory structure. This is were  the DELTREE command comes in handy.

But before we get excited about it, there one different between the two commands. The DEL is an internal command, meaning when the DOS OS is loaded we can use it at will. While the DELTREE.EXE command is an external command, meaning the it is not included in the DOS OS. We need to have the disk source where all the command is located and have it copied to the hard drive so that we can use I. Now from the DOS prompt we just need to type the DELTREE and the the name of the directory that we need to erase. Be very aware once we have executed the command all the deleted files and directories will be permanently deleted from the hard drive.

c:\deltree d:\Sample1

Any DOS command that you would like to share?

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